Breathing Life into the Stone Fort Treaty
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Release Date:13 Mar 2013
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Breathing Life into the Stone Fort Treaty

An Anishnabe Understanding of Treaty One

By Aimée Craft; Foreword by John Burrows
UBC Press, Purich Publishing

In order to interpret and implement a treaty between the Crown and Canada’s First Nations, we must look to its spirit and intent, and consider what was contemplated by the parties at the time the treaty was negotiated, argues Aimée Craft. Using a detailed analysis of Treaty One – today covering what is southern Manitoba – she illustrates how negotiations were defined by Anishinabe laws (inaakonigewin), which included the relationship to the land, the attendance of all jurisdictions’ participants, and the rooting of the treaty relationship in kinship. While the focus of this book is on Treaty One, Anishinabe laws (inaakonigewin) defined the settler-Anishinabe relationship well before this, and the principles of interpretation apply equally to all treaties with First Nations.

Awards

  • 2014, Winner - Eileen McTavish Sykes Award for Best First Book, Manitoba Book Awards
  • 2014, Winner - Margaret McWilliams Scholarly Book Award, Manitoba Historical Society
Aimée Craft practices law at the Public Interest Law Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and has worked with many Indigenous peoples on land, resource, consultation, human rights, and governance issues. She holds a BA, an LLB, and an LLM. She is active in the Canadian Bar Association, the Indigenous Bar Association, and is a Speaker for the Treaty Relations Commission of Manitoba.

Foreword / John Burrows

Introduction: Treaty Interpretation and Implementation:Entwined Disconnection

Part One: What Came Before Treaty One
1. Skilled Negotiators and Diplomats:The Anishinabe and Indigenous, Fur Trade, and Crown Treaties
2. Manito Api — this “Piece of Land”: Treaty Making with the Indians of Manitoba

Part Two: Making the Stone Fort Treaty
3. The Anishinabe at the Stone Fort: The People that Belong to this Land
4. Building on Stone Foundations: Relationships and Protocols

Part Three: Anishinabe Inaakonigewin
5. Gizhagiiwin: The Queen’s Obligations of Love, Caring, Kindness and Equality
among her Children
6. “The Land Cannot Speak for Itself”: Relationships To and About Land

Part Four: Living the Treaty
7. Implementing the Treaty: Outside Promises and Post-treaty Disputes in the Immediate
Post-treaty Years.

Conclusion: Re-kindling the Fire: Finding and Embracing the Spirit and Intent
of Treaty One Today

Endnotes
Bibliography
Index

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