Crime, Law & Deviance Series

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Patterns of Policing

A Comparative International Analysis

Rutgers University Press

Patterns of Policing is the first comparison of the development and operation of police in countries throughout the world, concentrating on Asia, Europe, and North America. Bayley examines the variability in police work, suggests reasons for this variation, and makes preditions about the future role of police.

He considers how contemporary police institutions have developed. Police forces worldwide tend to be public rather than private, to concentrate on crime fighting rather than services, and to be professionally trained and recruited. There is, however, great variation in the structure of police forces, which are generally either centralized or, as in the United States, decentralized.

The behavior of the police toward their constituents also varies by nation. As urbanization and industrialization increase, the public finds itself in greater contact with police and may begin to rely on them more for protection. There are also marked differences cross-nationally in the way police relate to political and community life.

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Structural Criminology

Rutgers University Press

Focusing on a variety of criminal activities, the author applies his structural criminology to the relationships of power which operate in a range of institutional spheres. He looks at the relationship between class and criminality, showing the inadequacy of a simple causal link and discussing the prevalence of "white collar" crime. Hagan sees other significant structures of power in the relative influence of corporate actors - for example large commercial establishments - who bring charges against individuals, and he analyzes both the legal outcome of such conflicts and the symbolic aspects of sentencing and judicial operations in general. Throughout, these essays stress the structural importance of unemployment, race and gender in the legal definitions of criminal behaviour and the need to situate each factor within its complex of power relationships.

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