Forestry and Biodiversity
374 pages, 6 1/4 x 9 1/4
20 b&w photos, 20 tables, 35 charts, 4 maps
Release Date:01 Jan 2010
Release Date:01 Jan 2010

Forestry and Biodiversity

Learning How to Sustain Biodiversity in Managed Forests

UBC Press

Sustainable management is a problem for countries that depend on natural resources. Forests contain most of the world’s biodiversity and offer significant renewable resources with a potentially small ecological and carbon footprint. Yet the global demand for forest products has increased while the need to conserve biodiversity and endangered species has become more urgent and challenging.

Sustainable management in the forestry sector is complicated by the size and slow growth of commercial forests. Forestry and Biodiversity makes the case for adaptive management – a structured approach to learning by doing – to sustain biodiversity in managed forests. It draws on the theory and principles of conservation biology and forest ecology and illustrates them, and the challenges they present, through a practical, real-world study of a 1.1 million hectare commercial operation in a coastal temperate rainforest. The authors present the results honestly – not everything worked as intended – the problems they encountered suggest where the boundaries of science stop and social choices must be made.

Forestry and Biodiversity describes an innovate program for sustaining biodiversity in managed forests that will be of interest to those who plan, or hope to influence, forest practices and to those who are concerned with wildlife, climate change, and the environment.

This book is an essential read and reference for all forest stakeholders who are committed to integrated management of forests for sustained economic, environmental, and cultural values. So much written about this subject is theoretical, but this book shares major lessons from a large-scale real-world effort to implement such management and to assess its effectiveness. Jerry Franklin, professor of ecosystem analysis, University of Washington
There is a vast literature on ecologically sustainable forest management. But there are precious few scientifically defensible examples of it. This book is truly a rare gem that does exactly that -- provides a well-written and scientifically well argued case for how ecologically sustainable forest management should be done. The work described in this book sets a very high benchmark for others to reach. I highly recommend this volume to any forest ecologist, forest manager, or forest policy maker. David Lindenmayer, professor of forest wildlife management and nature conservation at the Australian National University, Canberra

Fred L. Bunnell is a professor emeritus of forestry and conservation biology at the University of British Columbia. Glen B. Dunsworth is a forest ecology and conservation biology consultant.

List of Illustrations

Part 1: Introduction

1 The Problem / Fred L. Bunnell, Glen B. Dunsworth, David J. Huggard, and Laurie L. Kremsater
 1.1 "Wicked" Problems
 1.2 Expanding and Competing Values
 1.3 Special Difficulties in Forests
 1.4 Adaptive Management
 1.5 Bounding the Book: What It Is and Is Not
 1.6 Summary

2 The Example / Fred L. Bunnell, William J. Beese, and Glen B. Dunsworth
 2.1 Physical and Ecological Setting
 2.1.1 Physical Landscape
 2.1.2 Climate, Vegetation, and Fauna
 2.2 Social and Historical Contexts
 2.3 New Planning and Practices
 2.3.1 Planning
 2.3.2 Practices
 2.4 Structures to Make It Work
 2.5 Monitoring
 2.6 Summary

3 The Approach / Fred L. Bunnell and Glen B. Dunsworth
 3.1 Managers’ Questions
 3.2 Establishing Objectives and Measures of Success
 3.2.1 Defining Biological Diversity
 3.2.2 A Criterion and Indicators of Success
 3.3 Deciding on Actions
 3.4 Evaluating Success
 3.4.1 Bounding the Problem
 3.4.2 The Major Questions
 3.4.3 Kinds of Monitoring and Adaptive Management
 3.4.4 Creating Structured Learning
 3.5 Linking Findings to Actions
 3.6 Summary

4 Implementing the Approach / Fred L. Bunnell, William J. Beese, and Glen B. Dunsworth
 4.1 Change in Midstream
 4.2 Progress in Adopting the Approach
 4.2.1 Implementing Planning
 4.2.2 Implementing Variable Retention
 4.3 Assessing the Outcomes of Guidelines
 4.3.1 Biological Legacies
 4.3.2 Forest Influence
 4.3.3 Amount of Retention
 4.3.4 Forest Stewardship
 4.3.5 Requisite Variety
 4.4 Lessons from Implementation Monitoring
 4.5 Summary

Part 2: The Indicators

5 Effectiveness Monitoring: An Introduction / Fred L. Bunnell, David J. Huggard, and Glen B. Dunsworth
 5.1 Context
 5.2 How Do We Ask Our Questions?
 5.3 What Would We Do with the Data if We Had Them?
 5.4 How Do We Discern What Is Better?
 5.5 Where Does the Answer Apply?
 5.6 The Role of Pilot Studies
 5.7 Summary

6 Ecosystem Representation: Sustaining Poorly Known Species and Functions / David J. Huggard and Laurie L. Kremsater
 6.1 Rationale
 6.2 What to Monitor
 6.2.1 Amount of Non-Harvestable or Lightly Managed Area
 6.2.2 Ecosystem Representation
 6.2.3 Size of Non-Harvestable Patches and Geographic Distribution
 6.2.4 Edge and Interior
 6.2.5 Special Ecosystems and Productivity
 6.2.6 Other Indices of Spatial Pattern
 6.2.7 Natural Disturbances and Stand Age Distribution
 6.2.8 Responsibility and Regional Protected Areas
 6.3 How to Monitor
 6.4 Anticipated Feedback to Management
 6.5 Summary

7 Learning from Ecosystem Representation / David J. Huggard, Laurie L. Kremsater, and Glen B. Dunsworth
 7.1 Context
 7.2 Methods
 7.2.1 Ecosystem Representation
 7.2.2 Edge/Interior and Patch Size
 7.2.3 Other Land Use Designations Emphasizing Conservation
 7.2.4 Responsibility and Protected Areas
 7.3 Results
 7.3.1 Responsibility and Protected Areas
 7.3.2 Representation of Variants in the Non-Harvestable Land Base
 7.3.3 Representation of Site Series
 7.3.4 Edge/Interior and Other Spatial Aspects
 7.3.5 Representation in Other Conservation Designations
 7.4 Discussion
 7.4.1 Limitations of Analysis
 7.4.2 Management Priorities: Under-Represented Dry Variants
 7.4.3 Management Priorities: Edge Effects
 7.4.4 Focusing Finer-Filter Monitoring
 7.5 Summary

8 Sustaining Forested Habitat / David J. Huggard, Fred L. Bunnell, and Laurie L. Kremsater
 8.1 Rationale
 8.1.1 Habitat Elements in Stands
 8.l.2 Habitat Structure in Stands
 8.1.3 Landscape Features
 8.2 What to Monitor
 8.2.1 Standard Habitat Elements and Their Attributes
 8.2.2 Integrative Habitat Variables
 8.2.3 Process Variables for Long-Term Habitat Projections
 8.2.4 Landscape Features
 8.2.5 Hypothetical Species as Landscape Indices
 8.3 How to Monitor
 8.3.1 Standard Habitat Elements and Their Attributes
 8.3.2 Integrative Habitat Variables (Habitat Structures)
 8.3.3 Process Variables for Long-Term Habitat Projections
 8.3.4 Landscape Features
 8.3.5 Hypothetical Species for Landscape Evaluation
 8.4 Anticipated Feedback to Management
 8.5 Summary

9 Learning from Habitat Elements / David J. Huggard, Jeff Sandford, and Laurie L. Kremsater
 9.1 Context
 9.2 Methods
 9.2.1 Field Methods
 9.2.2 Subsampling Design
 9.2.3 Study Design
 9.2.4 Approach to Summaries
 9.3 Results and Implications
 9.3.1 Expected Precision
 9.3.2 Comparison among Retention Types
 9.3.3 Comparison of Retention Patches with Uncut Benchmarks
 9.3.4 Relationships of Habitat Elements with Percent Retention
 9.3.5 Edge Effects
 9.3.6 Comparison of Patch Anchor Types
 9.3.7 Operational Progress
 9.4 General Discussion
 9.5 Summary

10 Sustaining Forest-Dwelling Species / Laurie L. Kremsater and Fred L. Bunnell
 10.1 Rationale
 10.2 What to Monitor? An Overview
 10.3 What to Monitor: Vascular Plants
 10.3.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Vascular Plants
 10.3.2 How to Monitor: Vascular Plants
 10.3.3 Links to Management: Vascular Plants
 10.4 What to Monitor: Bryophytes
 10.4.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Bryophytes
 10.4.2 How to Monitor: Bryophytes
 10.4.3 Links to Management: Bryophytes
 10.5 What to Monitor: Lichens
 10.5.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Lichens
 10.5.2 How to Monitor: Lichens
 10.5.3 Links to Management: Lichens
 10.6 What to Monitor: Fungi
 10.6.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Fungi
 10.6.2 How to Monitor: Fungi
 10.6.3 Links to Management: Fungi
 10.7 What to Monitor: Invertebrates
 10.7.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Invertebrates
 10.7.2 How to Monitor: Invertebrates
 10.7.3 Links to Management: Invertebrates
 10.8 What to Monitor: Vertebrates
 10.8.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Vertebrates
 10.8.2 What to Monitor: Vertebrates
 10.8.3 Links to Management: Vertebrates
 10.9 Overall Feedback to Management
 10.10 Summary

11 Learning from Organisms / David J. Huggard and Laurie L. Kremsater
 11.1 Context
 11.2 Intended Roles of the Pilot Study Phase
 11.2.1 Assess Sensitivity to Forest Practices
 11.2.2 Define Ecological Strata
 11.2.3 Define Appropriate Sampling Methods
 11.2.4 Guide Optimization of Sampling
 11.2.5 Illustrate Ways to Generalize
 11.2.6 Summary of the Pilot Phase
 11.3 Individual Monitoring Projects
 11.3.1 Breeding Bird Surveys
 11.3.2 Songbirds
 11.3.3 Owls
 11.3.4 Red Squirrels
 11.3.5 Carabid (Ground) Beetles
 11.3.6 Gastropods
 11.3.7 Bryophytes and Vascular Plants
 11.3.8 Epiphytic Lichens
 11.3.9 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi
 11.3.10 Aquatic-Breeding Amphibians
 11.4 Summary

Part 3: Summary

12 Designing a Monitoring Program / David J. Huggard, Laurie L. Kremsater, and Fred L. Bunnell
 12.1 Context
 12.2 How to Ask Questions
 12.2.1 Comparisons and Mechanisms
 12.2.2 Types of Comparisons
 12.3 Stand-Level Comparisons
 12.3.1 Very High-Priority Comparisons
 12.3.2 High-Priority Comparisons
 12.3.3 Moderate-Priority Comparisons
 12.3.4 Low-Priority Comparisons
 12.3.5 Summary of Comparisons
 12.4 Selecting Indicator Variables
 12.5 Matching Indicators with Comparisons
 12.6 Answering Questions Well
 12.6.1 Operational versus Experimental Comparisons
 12.6.2 Blocking Factors
 12.6.3 Pre-Treatment Measurement
 12.7 Monitoring over Larger Areas
 12.7.1 Indicator 1: Representation of Ecosystem Types in Non-Harvestable Areas
 12.7.2 Indicator 2: Stand and Landscape Features
 12.7.3 Indicator 3: Organisms
 12.7.4 Other Possible Ecological Variables for Broad-Scale Monitoring
 12.8 The Role of Models
 12.8.1 General Modelling Approach
 12.8.2 Specific Forms of Modelling
 12.8.3 Implications of Incorporating Mechanisms
 12.9 Summary

13 Summary: Progress and Lessons Learned / Fred L. Bunnell, David J. Huggard, and Laurie L. Kremsater
 13.1 Context
 13.2 Progress
 13.3 Lessons Learned
 13.3.1 Organizational Structure
 13.3.2 Design
 13.3.3 Feedback
 13.4 Summary Thoughts

Literature Cited
List of Contributors 

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