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An Ojibway-Anishinabe Vision for the Future

A vision shared. A manifesto. This remarkable work draws on Ojibway-, Ota’wa-, and Ishkodawatomi-Anishinabe world views, history, and lived experience to develop a wholly Ojibway-Anishinabe interpretation of the role of leadership and governance today.Arguing that Anishinabeg need to reconnect with non-colonized modes of thinking, social organization, and decision-making in order to achieve genuine sovereignty, Jerry Fontaine (makwa ogimaa) looks to historically significant models. He tells of three Ota’wa, Shawnee, and Ojibway-Anishinabe leaders who challenged aggressive colonial expansion into Manitou Aki (Creator's Land) – Obwandiac, Tecumtha, and Shingwauk. In Our Hearts Are as One Fire, Fontaine recounts their stories from an Ojibway-Anishinabe perspective using Ojibwaymowin language and knowledge woven together with conversations with elders and descendants of the three leaders.The result is a book that reframes the history of Manitou Aki and shares a vision of how Anishinabe spiritual, cultural, legal, and political principles will support the leaders of today and tomorrow.

Reframing Manitou Aki (Creator's Land) history from the perspective of the Ojibway-Anishinabe, Our Hearts Are as One Fire shares a vision for the leaders of today and tomorrow.

Literature, Art, and the Politics of Reconciliation in Canada

The Canadian public largely understands reconciliation as the harmonization of Indigenous–settler relations for the benefit of the nation. But is this really happening?Reconciliation politics, as developed in South America and South Africa, work counter to retributive justive in order to redress the divide opened up between survivors and perpetrators as a result of historical violence. The Theatre of Regret asks whether, within the context of settler colonialism, this approach will ultimately favour the state over the needs and requirements of Indigenous peoples. Interweaving literature, art, and other creative media throughout his analysis, David Gaertner questions the state-centred frameworks of reconciliation by exploring the critical roles that Indigenous and allied authors, artists, and thinkers play in defining, challenging, and refusing settler regret.Through close examination of its core concepts – acknowledgement, apology, redress, and forgiveness – this study exposes the colonial ideology at the root of reconciliation in Canada.

The Theatre of Regret reveals the role that Indigenous and allied literatures play in challenging state-centred discourses of reconciliation in Canada.

Reflections on Settler Colonialism in Canada

Canada is a country of bounded spaces – a nation situated between rock and cold to the north and a political border to the south. In A Bounded Land, Cole Harris seeks answers to a sweeping question: How was society reorganized – for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people alike – when Europeans resettled this distinctive land?Through a series of vignettes that focus on people’s experiences on the ground, Harris exposes the underlying architecture of settler colonialism as it grew and evolved, from the first glimpses of new lands and peoples, to the immigrant experience in early Canada, to the dispossession and resettlement of First Nations in British Columbia.By considering the whole territory that became Canada over 500 years and focusing on sites of colonial domination rather than settler texts, Harris unearths fresh insights on the continuing and growing influence of Indigenous peoples and argues that Canada’s boundedness is ultimately drawing the country toward its Indigenous roots.

In this beautifully crafted and written volume, Canada’s preeminent historical geographer traces how Canada’s geographical limitations have shaped the nature of its settler societies – from first contacts, to dispossession, to our current age of reconciliation.

The Untold Story of the Métis of Western Québec

We think of Métis as having exclusively Prairie roots. Quebec doesn’t recognize a historical Métis community, and the Métis National Council contests the existence of any Métis east of Ontario. Quebec residents who seek recognition as Métis under the Canadian Constitution therefore face an uphill legal and political battle. Who is right?Bois-Brûlés examines archival and ethnographic evidence to piece together a riveting history of Métis in the Outaouais region. Scottish and French-Canadian fur traders and Indigenous women established themselves with their Bois-Brûlé children in the unsurveyed lands of western Quebec in the early nineteenth century. As the fur trade declined, these communities remained.This controversial work, previously available only in French, challenges head-on two powerful nationalisms – Métis and Québécois – that see Quebec Métis as “race-shifting” individuals. The authors provide a nuanced analysis of the historical basis for a distinctly Métis identity that can be traced all the way to today.

Bois-Brûlés shatters the prevailing orthodoxy that Métis communities are found solely in western Canada by demonstrating that a distinct community emerged in the fur trade frontier of Quebec in the early nineteenth century and persists to this day.

A Trapline Memoir

At the age of seventeen, an Anishinabe boy who was raised in the south joined a James Bay Cree family in a one-room hunting cabin in the isolated wilderness of northern Quebec. He learned a way of life on the land that few are familiar with. Reflecting on those five months and his search for his own personal identity, that boy – Duncan McCue – takes us on an evocative exploration of the teenage years, growing up in a mixed-race family, and the culture shock of moving to the unfamiliar North. In the process, he illustrates the relationship Indigenous peoples have with their lands, and the challenges urban Indigenous people face when they seek to reconnect to traditional lifestyles.The Shoe Boy is a contemplative, honest, and unexpected coming-of-age memoir set in the context of the Cree struggle to protect their way of life, after massive hydro-electric projects forever altered the landscape they know as Eeyou Istchee.

The Shoe Boy is an evocative exploration of Indigenous identity and connection to the land, expressed in guise of a unique coming-of-age memoir set on a trapline in northern Quebec.

Rebuilding Indigenous Nations for a Stronger Canada

An Indigenous leader who has dedicated her life to Indigenous Rights, Jody Wilson-Raybould has represented both First Nations and the Crown at the highest levels. And she is not afraid to give Canadians what they need most – straight talk on what has to be done to collectively move beyond our colonial legacy and achieve true reconciliation in Canada. In this powerful book, drawn from speeches and other writings, she urges all Canadians – both Indigenous and non-Indigenous – to build upon the momentum already gained in the reconciliation process or risk hard-won progress being lost.The good news is that Indigenous Nations already have the solutions. But now is the time to act and build a shared postcolonial future based on the foundations of trust, cooperation, recognition, and good governance. Frank and impassioned, From Where I Stand charts a course forward – one that will not only empower Indigenous Peoples but strengthen the well-being of Canada and all Canadians.

Jody Wilson-Raybould outlines in impassioned, inspiring prose the actions that must be taken by governments, Indigenous Nations, and all Canadians to achieve true reconciliation in this country.

How Violence Persists in Settler Colonial Society

In 2004, Amnesty International characterized Canadian society as “indifferent” to high rates of violence against Indigenous women and girls. When the Canadian government took another twelve years to launch a national inquiry, that indictment seemed true. Invested Indifference offers a divergent perspective by examining practices during three different periods in the place we now call Edmonton, juxtaposing early settler texts, documents concerning the former Charles Camsell Indian Hospital, and contemporary online police materials. Kara Granzow reaches a startling conclusion: that what we see as societal indifference doesn’t come from an absence of feeling but from a deep-rooted and affective investment in framing specific lives as disposable. Granzow demonstrates that through mechanisms such as the law, medicine, and control of land and space, violence against Indigenous peoples has become symbolically and politically ensconced in the social construction of Canadian nationhood.

Invested Indifference exposes the tenacity of violence against Indigenous people, arguing that some lives are made to matter – or not – depending on their relation to the settler-colonial nation state.

The Guerin Case and Aboriginal Law

This book tells the story of a First Nation’s single-minded quest for justice. In 1958, the federal government leased a third of the small Musqueam Reserve in Vancouver to an exclusive golf club at far below market value. When the band members discovered this in 1970, they initiated legal action. Their tenacity led to the 1984 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in Guerin v. The Queen.In Guerin, the Court held that the government has a fiduciary duty towards Indigenous peoples – an obligation to act in their best interests. This landmark decision is explored in this book, written by an Aboriginal rights lawyer who served as one of the legal counsel for the Musqueam and argued on their behalf all the way to the highest court. Jim Reynolds provides an in-depth analysis, considering the context, the case and decision, and the major impact that Guerin had on Canadian law, politics, and society.The Guerin case changed the relationship between governments and Indigenous peoples from one of wardship to one based on legal rights. It was a seismic decision with implications that resonate today, not only in Canada but also in other Commonwealth countries.

This thoughtful and engaging examination of the Guerin case shows how it changed the relationship between governments and Indigenous peoples from one of wardship to one based on legal rights.

The Political Economy of Indigenous Land Reform

As many Indigenous communities return to self-governance and self-determination, they are taking their own approaches to property rights and community development. Based on case studies in four Indigenous communities – the Westbank, Membertou, Nisga’a, and James Bay Cree nations – Jamie Baxter traces how local leaders have set the course for land rights and development during formative periods of legal and economic upheaval. Drawing on new research about institutional change in organizational settings, Baxter explores when and how community leaders have sustained inalienable land rights without turning to either persuasion or coercive force – the two levers of power normally associated with political leadership.Inalienable Properties challenges the view that liberalized land markets are the inevitable result of legal and economic change. It shows how inalienability can result from intentional choices and is linked to structures of decision-making that have long-lasting consequences for communities.

Inalienable Properties explores the contrasting approaches taken by local leaders to property rights and development in four Indigenous communities.

Land Claims Boards, Wildlife Management, and Environmental Regulation

Co-management boards, established under comprehensive land claims agreements with Indigenous peoples, have become key players in land-use planning, wildlife management, and environmental regulation across Canada’s North. This book provides a detailed account of the operation and effectiveness of these new forms of federalism in order to address a central question: Have co-management boards been successful in ensuring substantial Indigenous involvement in policies affecting the land and wildlife in their traditional territories?Graham White tackles this question, drawing on decades of research and writing about the politics of Northern Canada. He begins with an overview of the boards, examining their legal foundations, structure and membership, decision-making processes, and independence from government. He then presents case studies of several important boards. While White identifies constraints on the role Northern Indigenous peoples play in board processes, he finds that overall they exercise extensive decision-making influence. These findings are provocative and offer valuable insights into our understanding of the importance of land claims boards and the role they play in the evolution of treaty federalism in Canada.

This book is a clear, compelling, and evidence-based assessment of the effectiveness of co-management boards in providing Indigenous peoples with genuine influence over land and wildlife decisions affecting their traditional territories.

Legacies of Colonialism in Museum Documentation

How does material culture become data? Why does this matter, and for whom? As the cultures of Indigenous peoples in North America were mined for scientific knowledge, years of organizing, classifying, and cataloguing hardened into accepted categories, naming conventions, and tribal affiliations – much of it wrong. Cataloguing Culture examines how colonialism operates in museum bureaucracies. Using the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History as her reference, Hannah Turner organizes her study by the technologies framing museum work over two hundred years: field records, the ledger, the card catalogue, the punch card, and eventually the database. She examines how categories were applied to ethnographic material culture and became routine throughout federal collecting institutions.As Indigenous communities encounter the documentary traces of imperialism while attempting to reclaim what is theirs, this timely work shines a light on access to and return of cultural heritage.

In examining how the technologies of museum bureaucracy – the ledger book, the card catalogue, the database – operate through a colonial lens, Cataloguing Culture shines a light on access to and the return of Indigenous cultural heritage.

At a time when the Métis are becoming increasingly visible in Canadian politics, this unique book offers a practical guide for understanding who they are, how they govern themselves, and the challenges they face on the path to self-government.The Métis have always been a political people. Kelly Saunders and Janique Dubois draw on interviews with elders, leaders, and community members to reveal how the Métis are giving life to Louis Riel’s vision of a self-governing Métis Nation within Canada. They look to the Métis language – Michif – to identify Métis principles of governance that emerged during the fur trade and that continue to shape Métis governing structures. Both then and now, the Métis have engaged in political action to negotiate their place alongside federal and provincial partners in Confederation. As Canada engages in nation-to-nation relationships to advance reconciliation, this book provides timely insight into the Métis Nation’s ongoing struggle to remain a free and self-governing Indigenous people.

This timely book offers a novel, practical guide for understanding who the Métis are and the challenges they face on the path to self-government.

Canada’s Indian Act is infamously sexist. Through many iterations of the legislation a woman’s status rights flowed from her husband, and even once it was amended to reinstate rights lost through marriage or widowhood, First Nations women could not necessarily pass status on to their descendants. That injustice has rightly been subject to much scrutiny, but what has it meant for First Nations men? Martin J. Cannon challenges the decades-long assumption of case law and politics that the act has affected Indigenous people as either “women” or “Indians” – but not both. He argues that sexism and racialization within the law must instead be understood as interlocking forms of discrimination that have also undercut the identities of Indigenous men through their female forebears. By restorying historically patriarchal legislation and Indigenous masculinity, Men, Masculinity, and the Indian Act makes a significant contribution to a transformative discussion of Indigenous nationhood, citizenship, and reconciliation.

Men, Masculinity, and the Indian Act reverses conventional thinking to argue that the sexism directed at women within the act in fact undermines the well-being of all Indigenous people, proposing that Indigenous nationhood cannot be realized or reinvigorated until this broader injustice is understood.

New Understandings of Memory Loss and Memory Care

Dementia is on the rise around the world, and health organizations in Canada, the United States, and New Zealand are increasingly responding to the urgent need – voiced by communities and practitioners – for guidance on how best to address memory loss in Indigenous communities.Indigenous Peoples and Dementia responds to this call by bringing together, for the first time, research on three key areas of concern: prevalence, causes, and public discourse; Indigenous perspectives on care and prevention; and the culturally safe application of research to Elder care. The discussions are organized thematically and are complemented by teaching stories that impart Indigenous knowledge about memory loss and memory care.Presenting strategies for health practice and effective collaborative research informed by Indigenous knowledge and worldviews, this book is a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners, students, and educators who seek a better understanding of memory loss and memory care.

Indigenous People and Dementia brings together research and Indigenous knowledge on memory loss and memory care in later life to assist students, practitioners, and educators to decolonize their work with Indigenous peoples.

Indigenous Education in Canada

In 1867, Canada’s federal government became responsible for the education of Indigenous peoples: Status Indians and some Métis would attend schools on reserves; non-Status Indians and some Métis would attend provincial schools. The system set the stage for decades of broken promises and misguided experiments that are only now being rectified in the spirit of truth and reconciliation.Knowing the Past, Facing the Future traces the arc of Indigenous education since Confederation and draws a road map of the obstacles that need to be removed before the challenge of reconciliation can be met. This insightful volume is organized in three parts. The opening chapters examine colonial promises and practices, including the treaty right to education and the establishment of day, residential, and industrial schools. The second part focuses on the legacy of racism, trauma, and dislocation, and the third part explores contemporary issues in curriculum development, assessment, leadership, and governance.This diverse collection reveals the possibilities and problems associated with incorporating Traditional Knowledge and Indigenous teaching and healing practices into school courses and programs.

Knowing the Past, Facing the Future offers a sweeping account of Indigenous education in Canada, from the first treaty promises and the failure of government-run schools to illuminating discussions of what needs to change now to work toward reconciliation.

James Teit and an Anthropology of Belonging

At the Bridge chronicles the little-known story of James Teit, a prolific ethnographer who, from 1884 to 1922, worked with and advocated for the Indigenous peoples of British Columbia and the northwestern United States. From his base at Spences Bridge, BC, Teit forged a participant-based anthropology that was far ahead of its time. Whereas his contemporaries, including famed anthropologist Franz Boas, studied Indigenous peoples as members of “dying cultures,” Teit worked with them as members of living cultures resisting colonial influence over their lives and lands. Whether recording stories, mapping place-names, or participating in the chiefs’ fight for fair treatment, he made their objectives his own. With his allies, he produced copious, meticulous records; an army of anthropologists could not have achieved a fraction of what he achieved in his short life. Wickwire’s beautifully crafted narrative accords Teit the status he deserves, consolidating his place as a leading and innovative anthropologist in his own right.

At the Bridge lifts from obscurity the story of James Teit (1864–1922), an outstanding Canadian ethnographer and Indian rights activist whose thoughtful scholarship and tireless organizing have been largely ignored.

David Neel was an infant when his father, a traditional Kwakiutl artist, returned to the ancestors, triggering a series of events that would separate David from his homeland and its rich cultural traditions for twenty-five years. Drawing on memories, legends, and his own art and portrait photography, David Neel recounts his struggle to reconnect with his culture after decades of separation and a childhood marred by trauma and abuse. He returned to the Pacific Coast in 1987, where he apprenticed with master carvers from his father’s village.The art of his ancestors and the teachings of the people he met helped make up for the lost years and fuelled his creativity. His career as a multimedia artist also gave him the opportunity to meet and photograph leading artists, knowledgeable elders, and prominent people from around the world. The Way Home is an uplifting tale that affirms the healing power of returning home. It is also a testament to the strength of the human spirit to overcome great obstacles, and to the power and endurance of Indigenous culture and art.

Crafted from memories, legends, and art, this powerful memoir tells the uplifting story of an Indigenous man’s struggle to reconnect with his culture and walk in the footsteps of his father and the generations of Kwakwa̱ka̱’wakw artists that came before him.

Protected Area Creation on Wemindji Cree Territory

How do Indigenous communities in Canada balance the development needs of a growing population with cultural commitments and responsibilities as stewards of their lands and waters? Caring for Eeyou Istchee recounts the extraordinary experience of the James Bay Cree community of Wemindji, Quebec, who partnered with a multi-disciplinary research team to protect territory of great cultural significance in ways that respect community values and circumstances. This volume tackles fundamental questions: What is “environmental protection”? What should be protected? What factors inform community goals? How does the natural and cultural history of an area inform protected area design? How can the authority and autonomy of Indigenous institutions of land and sea stewardship – and the knowledge integral to them – be respected and reinforced? In answering these questions, Indigenous and non-Indigenous contributors present a comprehensive account of one of the world’s most dynamic coastal environments. More particularly, they demonstrate how protected area creation is a powerful process for supporting Indigenous environmental stewardship, and cultural heritage.

In Caring for Eeyou Istchee, Indigenous and non-Indigenous partners reveal how protected area creation presents a powerful vehicle for Indigenous stewardship, biological conservation, and cultural heritage protection.

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